Modifying Marketing Orders to Face New Challenges

Rachael E. Goodhue and Harry M. Kaiser

from ARE Update Vol. 24, No. 1, Sep/Oct, 2020

View Article PDF: Modifying Marketing Orders to Face New Challenges


Growers’ strategies to enhance the economic sustainability of their farms are constantly evolving to address changing markets and production conditions. State or federal marketing orders enable farmers, farmer-organizations, and, in some cases, handlers to act collectively to further their mutual economic interests without violating anti-trust law. In order for marketing orders to be relevant with changing agricultural conditions, they must periodically have modifications made to their rules and regulations. Changing the scope of a marketing order’s regulations involves undertaking a thorough rule-making process, which generally takes significant lead time before approval and implementation of changes. In this article, we examine recent efforts by the California Walnut Board to update its order in three key dimensions.


Credit-back marketing programs, returns to advertising, returns to promotions, CA walnuts,
agricultural producer organizations, collective action


Rachael E. Goodhue and Harry M. Kaiser. 2020. "Modifying Marketing Orders to Face New Challenges." ARE Update 24(1): 1-4. University of California Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics.